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Oxygen is widely used in many medical applications, for which there have been no problems. It is vital to promote recovery by increasing oxygen concentrations in the body.  High levels of oxygen can helpful or could cause damage depending on the circumstances and the patient.   Until you know otherwise, it is best to give oxygen to a patient just in case there is a problem. 

Oxygen should not be given to a patient who is suffering from Paraquat Poisoning unless he or she is suffering from severe respiratory distress. This is because oxygen can increase the toxic affect. Dealing with Paraquat, a weed killer that is usually only used in agriculture and horticulture, is unusual because it is a very rare condition. 

Care needs to be taken with patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or COPD such as emphysema. Those known to retain carbon dioxide should especially be taken care of.  Oxygen could cause them serious harm by reducing the respiratory drive to the point where they stop breathing.

Care should also be taken and concentrations should be limited in the case of premature infants and patients with chronic bronchitis and emphysema.   Finally, guidelines have been published by the British Thoracic Society (BTS) on the safe therapeutic use of medical oxygen. It encourages proper assessment of the patient before use. You can also find information on Oxygen from BOC.